Tasmania’s maritime history 塔斯马尼亚岛的海事史

Welcome to the Maritime Museum of Tasmania
欢迎光临塔斯马尼亚海事博物馆

Tasmania’s maritime history  
塔斯马尼亚岛的海事史

Tasmania was joined to mainland Australia until about 12,000 years ago when sea levels rose and Tasmania became an island. The aboriginal people who populated the region had no contact with the rest of the world until European explorers first arrived in 1642.
塔斯马尼亚本来是跟澳大利亚大陆相连的,但是大约12,000年前海平面上升,塔斯马尼亚便成为了一个岛屿。在1642年欧洲探险家首次到达这里之前,这儿的土著居民跟外界没有任何联系。

Settlers from Britain came in the early 1800s and took over the land. The newcomers were very dependent on local and overseas shipping for communication, trade and immigration. The reliance on shipping diminished with the advent of motor vehicles, improved roads and aeroplanes during the 1900s. But the waterways around Tasmania are still an important for tourism, recreation, fishing and ship building.  
在十九世纪早期,一些英国人便来到这里定居,并接管了这片土地。这些英国人依靠当地以及远洋船只来交流、贸易以及移民。在二十世纪中,随着机动车辆和飞机的出现以及道路的改善,塔斯马尼亚对船运的依赖程度也逐渐降低,但是塔斯马尼亚周围的水道对于旅游、娱乐、渔业以及船舶制造来说,还是非常重要。

The vast majority of immigrants have been British but after World War II many also came from war-torn countries in continental Europe. Immigrants from other nations have arrived in smaller numbers - including over 1000 Chinese who came to mine tin in the 1870s and 1880s.
塔斯马尼亚绝大部分移民来自于英国,但是第二次世界大战后也有很多人从饱受战争蹂躏的欧洲大陆移民到这儿来。来自于别的国家的移民相对来说很少,在这些移民中包括十九世纪七十年代到八十年代来这里开采锡矿的1000多名中国人。

Hobart harbour early 1800s 十九世纪早期的霍巴特海港
Hobart harbour early 1800s  
十九世纪早期的霍巴特海港  

Chinese miner in Tasmania    塔斯马尼亚的中国矿工

Chinese miner in Tasmania
塔斯马尼亚的中国矿工                      

1. Aboriginal canoes
土著人的小舟

Tasmanian Aboriginal bands were hunters and gatherers. Each occupied territory that included an inland hunting ground and a coastal area where they gathered shellfish and caught seals and birds. To cross rivers and estuaries and to reach offshore islands they built canoes made from bundles of reeds or bark, tied together with cord.
塔斯马尼亚土著人有两个群体,一个群体以狩猎为生,一个以采集为生。每个群体都占据一块岛内狩猎场地和一个沿海采集贝壳类水生动物、捕海豹和鸟类的区域。为了度过河流与河口去沿海岛屿,他们用将一捆捆芦苇或者树皮用绳索绑在一起,做成了小筏子。

Aboriginal canoes
土著人的小舟

2. European Exploration
欧洲人的探险

In 1642 Dutchman, Abel Tasman, was the first explorer to land Europeans on Tasmanian soil. He had been sent by the Dutch East India Company from their trading centre in the Spice Islands (Indonesia) to seek spices, gold or other valuable goods – which he failed to discover in Australia or New Zealand.
1642荷兰人Abel Tasman成为首位踏上塔斯马尼亚土地的欧洲人。他被荷兰东印度公司从他们在印度尼西亚香料群岛的贸易中心派去寻找香料、金子以及其他贵重货物,而这些东西他在澳大利亚以及新西兰都没有找到。

During the 1700s Southern Tasmania became a favoured resting and restocking place for French and English explorers journeying to the Pacific in search of new routes, trade goods, and scientific knowledge.
从1700到1709年,塔斯马尼亚南部成为去太平洋寻找新航线、贸易货物、探寻科学知识的法国人和英国人喜爱的休息场所和补给场所。

The first European settlers were sent to establish a British convict colony. They arrived in 1803 and Hobart was established the following year.
首批的欧洲定居者被送到那里建造一个英国的犯人殖民地。他们1803年到达那里,而霍巴特在下一年建立。

Cook’s expedition at Adventure Bay, 1777

Cook’s expedition at Adventure Bay, 1777 
1777年,Cook在Adventure Bay探险

Model of the Lady Nelson Lady Nelson号的模型

Model of the Lady Nelson
Lady Nelson号的模型    

3. Cannon from the Wynaud
号上的加农炮

The Wynaud was built in 1854 for the lucrative British opium trade between India and China - but was never actually used for it. However the ship did carry tea from China before being wrecked on Tasmania’s north east coast in 1874. 
Wynaud号建造于1854年,它是为英国跟印度和中国有利可图的鸦片贸易而建,但实际上它从来没有为此而使用过。不过它确实从中国运过茶叶。1874年这艘船年在塔斯马尼亚东北海岸失事。

The Wynaud                                Wynaud号

The Wynaud
Wynaud号

Cannon from  the Wynaud                                Wynaud号

Cannon from the Wynaud
号上的加农炮

4. Convict labour – establishing the colony
囚犯劳动力——建立殖民地

The Industrial Revolution caused major social upheavals in Britain in the 1700s and a rise in crime. Many convicts were sent to American colonies until Britain lost these in the War of Independence. To ease their overflowing prisons the British Government decided to establish convict colonies in Australia.
在1700年到1709年,工业革命在英国引起了社会动荡,犯罪率上升。很多犯人被送往美洲殖民地,直至美国独立战争让英国失去了这些殖民地。为了缓解犯罪人口过多的压力,英国决定在澳大利亚建立犯人殖民地。

Seventy-five thousand convicts were sent to Tasmania (then known as Van Diemen Land) before transportation ended in 1868. Convicts provided labour to build the colony and once free, many prospered. Although most convicts came from Britain some came from British colonies including a few Chinese from Hong Kong and Mauritius.
共有七万五千名犯人被送到塔斯马尼亚(当时这里叫Van Diemen Land),到1868年英国才停止向那里运送犯人。这些犯人们为殖民地的建设提供了劳动力,很多在获得自由后还取得了成功。尽管绝大部分犯人来自于英国,但是也有一些来自于英国的殖民地,这包括少数来自香港和毛里求斯的中国人。

Convict chain gang, Hobart 在霍巴特被铁链锁着的做苦工的犯人

Convict chain gang, Hobart
在霍巴特被铁链锁着的做苦工的犯人

5. Trade to and from Tasmania
塔斯马尼亚的贸易往来

Many ships which brought convicts and migrants from Britain sailed on to China to load tea, silks and ceramics for the return voyage to Europe. Overseas ships also brought manufactured goods from Britain, sugar from Mauritius and tea from China. (Often they were armed to fight pirates in the South China Sea.)
很多运载英国犯人和移民到塔斯马尼亚去的船在回欧洲的返程中会去中国带回茶叶、丝绸和瓷器。远洋船只也会从英国带来制成品,从毛里求斯带来糖,从中国带来茶叶。(通常,它们都配备了武装,以此来对抗中国南海的海盗。)

The island’s first major exports were fur seal skins (sold to China and Europe), whale oil, and wool. By the late 1800s apples had become a major export with large overseas liners arriving each autumn to carry the fruit to Europe.
塔斯马尼亚岛最早的出口品主要为海豹皮(它们被卖到中国和欧洲),鲸脂油和羊毛。十九晚期苹果成为主要的出口品,每年秋天,大型的远洋轮船从这里将苹果运到欧洲。

British liners arriving in Tasmania often employed Chinese crew members. 
到塔斯马尼亚的英国轮船常常雇佣中国船员。

Model whale ship 捕鲸船模型

Model whale ship
捕鲸船模型

Apple box labels 苹果箱上的商标

Apple box labels 苹果箱上的商标

Apple box labels
苹果箱上的商标

6. Captain Copping
船长

Captain Copping, whose stick and silver cup are exhibited, spent many years at sea, at first on whale ships and later as captain of sailing ships trading to Britain, New Zealand and mainland ports. The silver cup was presented to him by the owners of a circus he transported from New Zealand to Australia.
Copping船长在海上待了很多年。他开始在捕鲸船上,后来成为跟英国、新西兰以及大陆港口做贸易的帆船船长。展示的物品为他的手杖和银杯。银杯是一个马戏团的团长们所赠送。船长将马戏团从新西兰带到澳大利亚。

Captain Copping and his wife  Copping船长和他的夫人 and the  Silver presentation cup   赠送的银杯

Captain Copping and his wife and the silver presentation cup
Copping船长和他的夫人   赠送的银杯

7. Tasmanian Steam Navigation Company
塔斯马尼亚蒸汽航行公司

When steam power began to replace sail in the 1850s the Tasmanian Steam Navigation Company was formed to serve mainland and New Zealand Ports.
十九世纪50年代当蒸汽动力开始代替船帆时,塔斯马尼亚蒸汽航行公司成立,并服务于大陆港口和新西兰港口。

Tasmanian Steam Navigation Company 塔斯马尼亚蒸汽航行公司

Tasmanian Steamship Company plaque
塔斯马尼亚轮船公司的牌匾   

8. Shipwrecks
沉船

Tasmania is surrounded by shipwrecks – an unfortunate consequence of its rugged coast and strong winds.
由于塔斯马尼亚崎岖的海岸和强劲的大风,塔斯马尼亚周围有很多沉没的船只。

The earliest known shipwreck occurred in 1797, before British settlement when Tasmania was thought to be joined to the mainland. The Sydney Cove was sailing to the new settlement of Sydney with a speculative cargo from India - including Chinese ceramics. A few broken pieces from the wreck site can be seen in our shipwreck case.
最早的为大家所知的沉船事故发生在1797年,当时塔斯马尼亚被认为跟澳大利亚大陆相连,那时候英国人还没有在这里定居。Sydney Cove号带着想去赢利的货物从印度驶向悉尼的新居住地。这些货物中还包含了中国的瓷器。一些来自于失事地点的碎片可以在我们的沉船残骸柜里看到。

A more recent shipwreck was the Lake Illawarra which knocked down two pylons of the Tasman Bridge in 1975 and sank beneath the debris. Seven crew and five people who were driving across the bridge died, and the road link between Hobart and the Eastern Shore was severed. Recent sonar images show the wreck still lying beneath the reconstructed bridge.
最近的一艘沉船是Lake Illawarra号,它撞到了建于1975年的塔斯曼桥,并沉于残骸之下。七名船员以及5个开车过桥的人死亡。连接霍巴特和东海岸的道路被切断了。最近的声波图像显示,它的残骸还在被重建的桥的底下。

Ceramics from the Sydney Cove  Sydney Cove号上的瓷器

Artefacts from the Sydney Cove
悉尼小海湾的遗物

Sonar image of the Lake Illawarra Lake Illawarra的声纳图像     

Sonar image of the Lake Illawarra
Lake Illawarra的声纳图像

9. Whaling
捕鲸业

Tasmania’s first major export industry was whaling. Hobart had its own whaling fleet and many foreign whale ships also used the port.
塔斯马尼亚最早的出口产业就是捕鲸业。霍巴特有自己的捕鲸船队,外国的捕鲸船也用这个港口。
At first whales were caught in Tasmanian waters but their hunters soon had to go further afield, sometimes on voyages which took over a year.  Small rowing boats were lowered from the whale ships to chase and harpoon the whales. Sometimes boats were overturned or dragged long distances by a harpooned whale. It was a very dangerous occupation. 
最初,鲸鱼能够在塔斯马尼亚水域捕捉到,但是不久捕鲸者就必须到更远的水域去捕捉,有时候捕鲸的航程要一年以上。捕鲸者坐着从捕鲸船上放下去的小划艇追赶并投射鱼叉叉鲸鱼,这些小艇有时候被叉住的鲸鱼弄翻了,有时候被它们拖了很远的距离。这是一种危险的职业。

Captured whales were cut up and the blubber boiled to extract oil. This was used to light the cities of Europe and America and to lubricate the machines of industry before mineral oil was introduced. Whale bone was used as we might use plastics today.
捕来的鲸被切碎,鲸脂拿去煮,以此炼油。在矿物油被采用之前,这些油就被用来照亮欧洲和美国的城市,并用来给工业中的机器润滑。对鲸骨的使用就像如今我们使用塑料一样。

Painting of a 19th Century whale hunt 19世纪捕鲸油画作品

Painting of a 19th Century whale hunt
19世纪捕鲸油画作品

10. Tasmania’s naval history
塔斯马尼亚的海军史

Probably because of Tasmania’s strong maritime culture, a relatively large proportion of its youth joined the navy and participated in the two ‘World Wars’ fought by Australian troops. However, very little naval action has taken place in Tasmania.
很可能因为塔斯马尼亚浓烈海洋文化,很大一部分年轻人曾加入了海军,并参加了两次世界大战中澳大利亚军队所打的战斗,然而很少海上战斗发生在塔斯马尼亚

Small cannon used on board a ship 船上的小型加农炮

Small cannon used on board a ship
船上的小型加农炮

11. Boatbuilding
造船业

Tasmania has excellent boat building timbers which were soon used by British settlers to construct wooden vessels of all sizes, from small dinghies to ocean-going ships. Their small trading ketches were particularly sought after around Australia. Like Chinese junks built for local coastal or river trade, they had flattish bottoms (but their construction and rigging were very different). 
塔斯马尼亚有着非常好的造船木材,它们很快就被英国定居者用来建造从小艇到远洋轮船的各种型号的木船。他们的小型贸易双桅纵帆船在整个澳大利亚都受追捧。就像为当地沿海和河流贸易而建造的中国帆船一样,它们有着稍平的底部。(但是他们的结构和索具很不一样。)

Now Tasmania is known for its medium to large fast catamarans. The Hobart Company, INCAT, sells their fast ferries around the world to Europe, America and Asia. Two have been used between Fujian and Taiwan. The Hai Xia Hao (The Strait) commenced this service in 2011 and the Natchan RERA (麗娜輪) was built specifically for the route in 2014.
现在塔斯马尼亚因其生产从中型到大型的快速双体船而出名,霍巴特公司INCAT生产的快速轮渡被销售到欧洲、美洲和亚洲。其中两艘就往返于福建与台湾。海峡号于2011年就开始了这项服务,而丽娜号是2014年专门为此航线而建造。

A Tasmanian ketch 塔斯马尼亚双桅纵帆船

A Tasmanian ketch
塔斯马尼亚双桅纵帆船

Incat ferry Natchan RERA Incat轮渡Natchan RERA号

Incat ferry Natchan RERA
Incat轮渡Natchan RERA号

12. Travelling across the River
水上交通

Like many other cities and towns around the world which relied on water transport to move people and merchandise, Hobart was built on a waterway. Soon after Hobart was founded, ‘watermen’ provided a sometimes hazardous ferry service, rowing passengers and goods across in small wooden boats.
就像世界上其他依赖水上交通来运送旅客和货物的城镇一样,霍巴特也是建立在航道上的。在霍巴特建立不久后,船工们便提供有时候比较危险的摆渡服务,他们划着小船送乘客和货物过河。

As settlement expanded, regular ferry services were established. Our models show some of the ferries run by several generations of the O’May family between 1865 and 1939. After the opening of the first Hobart Bridge in 1943 the ferry services declined, except for a two-year resurgence after the bridge was knocked down. Now our ferries mostly transport tourists.
随着定居点的扩大,定期的轮渡服务就逐渐形成了。我们的模型展示了1865到1939年间O’May家族几代人开过的轮渡模型。在1943年第一座霍巴特桥投入使用后,摆渡服务业开始下滑,在这座桥被撞倒后,摆渡服务也有过两年的复兴。现在我们的轮渡主要运送游客。

The Silver Crown Silver Crown号

The Silver Crown
Silver Crown号

13. Lighting the coast
海岸照明

Many lighthouses around Tasmania’s coast were built because ships had been wrecked nearby. The first was the Iron Pot Lighthouse erected near Hobart in 1832 and manned initially by a keeper and two convicts. During the following 74 years 25 lighthouses were constructed around the island. The picture shows Maatsuyker Island Light off South West Tasmania, our most remote light and also the last to be automated (in 1996).
因为附近船只失事的事件很多,所以塔斯马尼亚周围建了很多的灯塔。第一座灯塔是Iron Pot灯塔,它1832年修建在霍巴特附近。它最初是由一个灯塔看守人和两名囚犯管理。在接下来的74年里共有25座灯塔在这座岛周围修建。图片上展示的是塔斯马尼亚西南边Maatsuyker岛上的灯塔。它是离我们最远一处灯塔,也是最后一个被自动化的灯塔(于1996年)。

The first European style lighthouses in China were built in the 1860s by the Portuguese on Guia Hill Macau and by the British near Shanghai.
中国最早的欧式灯塔建于十九世纪六十年代,一座是葡萄牙人在澳门Guia Hill上建的灯塔,另一座是英国人在上海附近所建的灯塔。

Light from Goose Island lighthouse        鹅岛灯塔上的灯

Light from Goose Island lighthouse       
鹅岛灯塔上的灯      

Derwent Light in the 1800s   1800年到1809年Derwent河上的灯塔                  
Derwent Light in the 1800s
1800年到1809年Derwent河上的灯塔

14. Anchor from the Whistler
Whistler号上的锚

As you leave the museum you will see a large anchor in the garden bed. This came from the American clipper Whistler. This vessel transported 418 Chinese labourers from Hong Kong to Melbourne in 1855 to join the Victorian gold rush. Soon after leaving Melbourne for Singapore in ballast Whistler was wrecked on King Island. All but two of the crew survived.
当你从博物馆里出来时,你会看到前庭花园里有一个巨大的锚。这个锚来自于美国大帆船Whistler号。这艘船于1855年将418名中国劳工从香港运送到墨尔本去加入维多利亚淘金热。在Whistler号离开墨尔本驶向新加坡不久后在国王岛上失事。船上只有两名船员幸存。

Anchor from the Whistler Whistler号上的锚

Anchor from the Whistler
Whistler号上的锚


 

Maritime Museum of Tasmania
塔斯马尼亚海事博物馆

Open 9am - 5pm daily (except Christmas Day and Good Friday)
开放时间:每日9点-17点 圣诞节以及受难节(复活节前的星期五)除外
地址:

Carnegie Building
Corner Argyle & Davey Streets
Hobart, Tasmania 7000
电话:

Phone 03 6234 1427

Translator: Shi Xiaofang
翻译者: 石晓芳.